Web development is an evergreen field where opportunities are always plenty. Since its emergence in the early 90s, the development industry has evolved and thrived in various ways and domains. Today, in the 21st century, web development remains one of the most sought-after skills. To begin a career in this domain, mastering web development languages is essential. However, with the various programming languages that exist today, you may get confused about choosing which languages to learn, especially if you are a beginner.
What is a Programming Language
Any language is, in general, a means for communication. Programming language is a computer language, which is used for communicating with computers. It is a set of instructions (or code) that’s written to perform specific actions. Through the programming language, developers are giving the computer instructions in a way the machines can understand and follow. All programming languages have their own syntax, structure, and rules that must be followed in order to execute the codes without errors.
Here are 5 BEST PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES FOR WEB DEVELOPMENT IN 2023
HTML or HyperText Markup Language is the foundation of web development that every developer needs to be familiar with. A popular skill for web developers, it is the 2nd most commonly used language in 2020, according to a survey by Stack Overflow. Although it is not a full-fledged programming language, it is the standard language used to create web pages.
- HTML provides the structure for the web pages and is responsible for the proper formatting of text and images.
- It allows the use of templates so designing a webpage can be done easily.
- It is lightweight and fast.
- Quite easy to learn and implement.
- Supported by every browser.
- Free and accessible.
- Static language, so not possible to create dynamic pages.
- Need to write a lot of code for developing a simple web page.
Like HTML, CSS is another basic language that every developer must know. CSS stands for Cascading Style Sheets and is often used with HTML to govern the style of a webpage. The combination of HTML and CSS is called the mother of all programming languages. The size, color, and positions of all elements in a web page are determined by CSS.
- It has a cascading style, meaning throughout a webpage, an applied style will cascade down from parent to child.
- It supports responsive web design.
- CSS upholds consistency due to its cascading nature.
- Simple and beginner-friendly.
- Improves page loading speed.
- Simplifies customization of web pages.
- Possibility of cross-browser issues.
- Confusion due to multiple levels like CSS, CSS2, and CSS3.
- It is a lightweight programming language.
- The syntax is simple and easy to learn.
- Besides web development, it can be used for developing mobile apps, games, and web servers.
- Easy to integrate with other languages.
- It is simple and versatile.
- No multiple inheritance support.
- Less secure compared to other languages.
An open-source language that is easy to learn and use, Python is one of the most popular languages used for web development. For beginners as well as experienced programmers, Python is an ideal choice. It is used for backend development, data science, web app development, and automation. It has a huge collection of standard libraries, which makes programming using Python easier for developers.
- It has dynamic typing capabilities which makes it easy for developers to create complex websites that need constant content changes.
- It is an efficient backend web development language and integrates with other programming languages like C, C#, and Java.
- It can be associated with popular web development frameworks like Django and Flask to create web-based applications.
- OOP special characteristics simplify programming.
- Extensively scalable.
- Emphasizes code readability.
- Interpreted programming language, hence slow.
- Not suitable for developing mobile applications.
In 1990, Sun Microsystems developed Java to add features to the C++ language. It was built on the Write Once Run Anywhere principle. Today, it is owned by Oracle and is one of the most widely used backend languages for web development. It follows the OOP concepts, has open-source feature-rich libraries, and is a good language to learn due to its moderate learning curve and high productivity.
- Java supports multithreading so multiple threads can be executed concurrently implying maximum CPU utilization.
- It supports vertical and horizontal scaling with only slight code changes.
- It can handle massive amounts of data and is highly secure.
- Easy to learn, write, and debug
- It is portable
- It is robust and versatile
- It consumes more memory
- Slow compared to languages like C or C++